Before banks per se, there weren’t any large transfers. Wealth or value was transferred either through property title deeds or goods being bartered.

There wasn’t much of a need to do transfers of money (in those days money was gold, silver, and other precious metals, plus prized commodities). Unless of course one was looting everything after a war, in which case, the armies literally had carriages to transfer away the loot.

Because trade was localized to a few hundred miles at best, there wasn’t much of a need to transfer money 1000s of miles away. Whatever was transferred, was simply a physical exchange amongst a group of men and women residing in the very small geographical radius.